Is polypropylene biodegradable?

This blog post will answer the question, “Is polypropylene biodegradable” and cover topics like the biodegradability of polypropylene and frequently asked questions related to the topic.

Is polypropylene biodegradable?

No, polypropylene is not biodegradable.

What is polypropylene?

One of the least expensive polymers is polypropylene, often known as polypropene or PP. It is also one of the polymers that are used the most, only being surpassed by polyethylene. 

Over 80 million tonnes of polypropylene were produced in 2020. China is the world’s top producer of polypropylene; in 2016, it generated 27% of global output.

What is the purpose of polypropylene?

Polypropylene is utilized in a wide range of common things due to its resilience. Plastic packaging, especially food containers, is where it is mostly used. 

Polypropylene is the primary material used to make bottle caps, covers, and thin-wall containers including yogurt pots, Tupperware, & microwave covers. 

This is so that it won’t absorb water, has a high melting point, and won’t, excepting very high temps, leach any toxins into the food that it holds.

Due to its resistance to cracking and general wear and tear, it is also utilized in interior hinges and automobile batteries. It is used in syringes & pill bottles in the medical industry.

Is polypropylene degradable in nature?

Not exactly, although it degrades faster than other kinds of plastic. While the deterioration of other polymers, such as polyethylene & polystyrene, may take more than 500 years, polypropylene just needs 20 to 30 years. 

This does not relieve you of the responsibility of caring about what will happen to your polypropylene if it is dumped or released into the environment. 

Cadmium, a hazardous metal that is poisonous to both animals and plants and a known carcinogen, may be released when polypropylene breaks down.

Does polypropylene include dangerous chemicals?

Propylene, which is obtained from petroleum, is polymerized to create polypropylene fibers. Based on the manufacturer and kind of PP used, the additive content of each polypropylene product might vary.

Phthalates, which are employed as plasticizers to make the material softer and much more robust, make up the majority of the chemical components of PP goods. This substance is not regarded as hazardous or cancer-causing.

But since they interfere with fetal development, phthalates are known to cause reproductive abnormalities, such as the feminization of males and undeveloped male genitalia in animals. Therefore, it is important to use care while handling any PP plastics.

Polypropylene also includes resins, catalysts, antioxidants, and UV stabilizers in addition to these compounds.

How is polypropylene recycled?

Mechanical recycling and chemical recycling are the two basic ways that PP is recycled. Separating polypropylene from other recyclables including plastics, glass, and paper entails mechanical recycling.

The second approach involves re-extruding the polymers into pellets for reuse while melting the polymers at a relatively low temp while adding catalysts.

Since recycling PP will involve the use of chemicals and heat, which restricts its potential for producing fewer waste products, it is not anticipated to be a straightforward process in the future.

There are already 19 PP recycling plants in Europe, and a further 11 are being built, for a total of 30 by 2020. Despite this, the US has only set up one plant and doesn’t have any intentions to create anymore.

Because PP is used in such vast quantities in common items, its recycling will likely be challenging and fraught with challenges.

How does the manufacturing of polypropylene affect the environment?

During manufacture, the production of polypropylene contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, many people are refraining from using polypropylene-containing items on environmental grounds.

The environment is polypropylene harmful, right? Petroleum & natural gas are needed for the PP manufacturing process, which results in significant greenhouse gas emissions. 

Additionally requiring electricity, extruding, molding, or thermoforming produce even more emissions due to the quantity required to perform these operations.

If there are no adjustments made to the production procedures used or the demand for its use, it is anticipated that the widespread use of polypropylene will release 1.3 billion tonnes of CO2 into the atmosphere during the next thirty years.

Through material recovery, recycling polypropylene may be an effective strategy to mitigate these negative environmental effects. 

Unfortunately, recycling is still not very common. However, there are several obstacles that prevent successful polypropylene recycling.

How does unrecycled PP affect the air?


The major driver of global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, of which polypropylene is thought to be a minor part. Therefore, polypropylene makes a little contribution to a bigger issue that requires attention from governments all around the globe.

According to studies, packaging trash makes up a significant portion of the garbage in landfills in wealthy nations. This is a significant environmental problem since recycled polypropylene may lower emissions and provide a variety of other advantages.

Are there any more environmentally friendly alternatives for polypropylene?

There are many choices for food containers created from more environmentally friendly materials, even though you won’t be able to discover more eco-friendly alternatives to polypropylene for all of its applications.

  • Paper
  • Biopolymers
  • Bagasse
  • Bamboo

I will now elaborate on these.


Paper is perhaps the most readily available alternative to plastic and is more environmentally friendly. Although it cannot be microwaved, it provides a reliable food container.


Bioplastics include at least 20% renewable ingredients in their construction. For instance, maize kernels are mostly used to make PLA. Despite not being microwaveable, bioplastics are secure for use in food packaging.


The plant fiber left behind after sugar is extracted from sugarcane is known as bagasse. It can be microwaved and is used to manufacture cups, takeout boxes, food containers, plates, and bowls.


Tupperware & food container substitutes made of bamboo are available, although some of them can’t be microwaved.

Is polypropylene thus sustainable? Not entirely, however it is much more sustainable than other forms of plastic since it degrades more rapidly, has a less carbon imprint, and doesn’t pose a health risk.

You may not be able to totally get rid of polypropylene from your house or place of business since it is used in so many commonplace things. 

Start by replacing your polypropylene food containers with ones made of paper, bioplastics, bagasse, or bamboo if you want to reduce the amount of polypropylene you use.

How can plastic bags made of non-recycled PP damage water?

In water, polypropylene sinks due to its low density. As a result, it travels down the stream and into rivers and seas, where it may poison marine life. 

Plastic bags and other plastics are often mistaken for jellyfish by turtles and other aquatic creatures, which then devour them, starving and suffocating to death.

How can plastic toys make of unrecycled PP harm the soil?

Under typical conditions, polypropylene polymers do not seem to be easily biodegradable, and as a result, they will stay for a long period in the environment.

Your PP plastics will end up in landfills if you don’t recycle them correctly, where they might seep into the ground or decay and release greenhouse gases. Therefore, recycling these products is crucial if we want to protect the environment.

What effects do plastic containers made of unrecycled PP have on animals?

Since the majority of polymers in polypropylene include phthalates, which may interfere with certain species’ reproductive processes, eating it by animals can be harmful to their health.

When plastic is damaged or worn down, these chemicals are more 

likely to leak out, providing a higher hazard to tiny creatures that may be exposed to this toxin more often.

Advice on recycling PP goods

  • Make an effort to reuse plastic containers many times.
  • Steer clear of plastic-wrapped purchases.
  • If purchasing items containing polypropylene is unavoidable, look for refilling facilities and use them to restock the item rather than purchasing a new one. You will spend less money and much less waste as a result.
  • Plastics should be disposed of in containers designated for such goods or recycled into racking strips that support supermarket checkout lines.
  • Clean your polypropylene containers before recycling them so that you may disassemble them into smaller pieces for simpler processing.
  • To give your plastic bottles the greatest chance of lasting a long time, try not to squeeze them too tightly and wash them by hand rather than placing them in the dishwasher.
  • Avoid storing food or liquids that might harm plastic in polypropylene containers since doing so can hasten the deterioration process & cause these goods to degrade more rapidly.
  • Consider utilizing recycled plastic takeaway containers.
  • Use environmentally responsible reusable bags in place of disposable bags.
  • To reduce the usage of plastic

Importance of recycling PP products

Recycling polypropylene not only cuts down on dangerous pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions but also conserves energy and natural resources. 

Oil sources are continuously depleting, and recycling polypropylene would drastically cut down on the amount of oil that must be extracted in order to make plastic items.

Recycling plastic uses less energy, which not only saves money but also lessens environmental damage since the energy is derived from renewable resources.

Additionally, using recycled PP goods may save prices and increase employment. Because recycled materials are less expensive than new ones and need less processing to be completed, more jobs are available globally as a result.

What impact does polypropylene have on our health?

In comparison to other plastics like polycarbonate, polypropylene has much fewer risks to human health. It is unlikely to leak poisons and contaminants into any food it holds because of its great heat tolerance. 

It is also devoid of BPA, a chemical that, if introduced into water and food sources, may have negative effects on the body’s immune system, capacity for learning, growth of the brain, and other things. 

However, it has been connected with occupational asthma when heated to exceptionally high temperatures.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs), “Is polypropylene biodegradable?”

How long does polypropylene take to break down biologically?

20-30 years

Polypropylene slowly breaks down once it is in landfills and may take anywhere between 20 and 30 years to completely decompose. 

This property raises serious environmental issues since the production additives may include poisons like cadmium and lead.

Why can’t polypropylene decompose naturally?

However, natural resources for polymers like polypropylene are scarce. The polymer linkages are not recognized by the enzymes in microorganisms that destroy biodegradable materials.

Can polypropylene be broken down in soil?

The second most popular petroleum-based plastic after polyethylene is polypropylene. However, due to its structural stability, it is difficult to break down. 

The substance has uses in almost every industry and is utilized in the film, packaging, and throwaway goods.

Can you recycle polypropylene?

Polypropylene is readily recyclable, thus the answer is, in general, yes. However, there is a false belief that polypropylene curtains and hospital covers cannot be recycled.

Is polypropylene a sustainable substance?

Compared to specific other polymers, polypropylene is more ecologically friendly. It is recyclable and emits fewer pollutants than polymers like PVC. 

Additionally, it degrades more quickly—in 20–30 years as opposed to more than 500 years for specific other polymers.

Why can’t polyethylene biodegrade?

Polyester is PET. It won’t disintegrate like other animals and plants trash since they are artificial items that aren’t present in nature and thus don’t have any organisms that can break down the stuff. Along with not degrading naturally, plastics have several other drawbacks.


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